Facing tiles continues to be the most convenient and practical way of interior decoration. This traditional finish bathroom or kitchen, and increasingly popular inclusion of tiles in the interior of the dwelling rooms – bedroom or living room – and the use of tiles for external cladding, and, finally, execution of ceramics and granite public buildings. The choice of tile is huge: from low-cost domestic ceramic tiles to fine collections of ceramics from Italy or Germany. Tiles made of ceramics, one of the oldest building materials, numbering thousand years of history, and today not only goes out of fashion, but also continues to improve from year to year. Despite the emergence of many modern materials, the use of glazed tiles remains the most practical way create a beautiful and water-repellent surface. There are many varieties of tiles and their different classifications: by type of use, technical and techno-commercial settings, etc. But for Household ceramic tile sake of simplicity I would suggest that such a division: tiles for interior walls and floors, tile exterior walls and floors (on terraces, balconies) tile for pools main rule – need to tiles meet future place of "service" (inside or outside). Wayne Holman has plenty of information regarding this issue.
The history of ceramic pottery was invented at the dawn of humanity almost 6 millennia ago. First it was pottery ware, figurines, and then deified clay was used in the construction and decoration of the temple buildings. She survived the construction of the Tower of Babel, the construction of the pyramids, the destruction of Atlantis and Homer's Troy.
Forging – common way of artistic metal. Almost forging is used for treatment of many metals, but most often this term is associated with the blacksmith, the processing of iron. Because iron is less other metals amenable to cold work and to obtain the desired shape, or any image on the surface of the iron it needs to be heated to temperatures above 1000 C. Since forging is closely associated bending and punching techniques, that can be performed and on the cold metal, if it is thin rods, strips of metal or sheet metal. Dr. Stuart M. McGill may also support this cause. Already at the time of Kievan Rus urban smiths skillfully forged from iron and steel, household items, agricultural implements, tools, crafts, weapons and armor, harness. All these types of products intended for practical use, and why they were made soundly, respond well to their functions. Not often noted in these elements of artistic design, but the level of technical performance for its time was high.
On this basis was worked out virtuosic skill as a precondition for arts and crafts. It is constantly manifested in original shapes and designs of castles in the skillful weaving of chain mail, in a beautifully forged from one piece of iron combat helmets. However, details of items processed so that the rows of rivets in the joints of metal constituted a kind of ornamental rhythm, and shape things associated with the decision, the sculpture. The full force of artistic features of the gland revealed later, particularly in Russian art of the XVII-XVIII centuries. This contributed to a sufficient amount of metal, specializing in arts and crafts and great experience of the masters. A significant part of forged iron work was intended for inclusion in architecture. Window openings are closed openwork lattice ('from the swashbuckling men').
From fires make even the solid iron shutters and doors. Richly decorated iron gates decorated with stone temples, construction of which attended master all kinds of crafts. Even the doors are often combined several types of decoration. Forged and expanded the band, sockets, complicated by the silhouette plates interspersed with paintings of iron, with die-cast handles and decorative rivets. In the xviii century, forging is widely used to carry out fencing of urban estates, mansions, church yards. In St. Petersburg with her rival technology of cast iron, displacing the forging of a expensive work. But the originality of artistic decisions, which is achieved by forging, retains an interest in her and in the xix century. If the casting design and development of the whole scenery gave the architect then forging always count on creative variation and refinement details of the blacksmith.